A Community Land Trust Bibliography

Selected and Compiled by John Emmeus Davis

January 1, 2018

Abromowitz, David M. 1991. An essay on community land trusts: Towards permanently affordable housing. Mississippi Law Journal 61: 663–682.

———. 1992. Long-term affordability, community land trusts and ground leases. ABA Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 1(2): 5–6, 17.

———. 2000. An essay on community land trusts: Toward permanently affordable housing. In Property and values, ed. Charles Geisler and Gail Daneker, 213–231. Washington, DC: Island Press.

———. 2008. Addressing foreclosures: A great American dream neighborhood stabilization plan. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Abromowitz, David, and Roz Greenstein. 2008. A foreclosure-free option. Boston Globe, January 23.

Abromowitz, David, and Kirby White. 2006. Deed restrictions and community land trust ground leases: Protecting long term affordable homeownership. Housing News Network, Journal of the Florida Housing Coalition 22 (May): 7–10, 24.

Abromowitz, David, and Kirby White. 2010. Deed restrictions and community land trust ground leases: Two Methods of establishing affordable homeownership restrictions. In The community land trust reader, ed. John Emmeus Davis, 327-334. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Aernouts, Nele and Michael Ryckewaert. 2017. Beyond housing: on the role of commoning in the establishment of a community land trust project. International Journal of Housing Policy. 1-19

Aird, Jennifer. 2010. Reviving community ownership in England: CLTs are ready to take over the land. In The community land trust reader, ed. John Emmeus Davis, 449-463. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Algoed, Line, Maria E. Hernandez Torrales, and Lyvia Rodriguez Del Valle. 2018 (forthcoming).      El Fideicomiso de la Tierra del Caño Martín Peña instrumento notable de regularización de suelo en asentamientos informales. Working Paper. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Angotti, Thomas. 2007. Community land trusts and low-income multifamily rental housing: The case of Cooper Square, New York City. Working Paper WP07TA1, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Apgar, William. 2004. Rethinking rental housing: Expanding the ability of rental housing to serve as a pathway to economic and social opportunity. Working Paper Series, WO4–11. Cambridge, MA: Joint Center for Housing Studies, Harvard University.

Ansanelli, Sean, Lola Feiger, Pete Harrison, Lauren Hoogkamer, Meg MacIver, Jaime Shedletsky, Baiyue Tian, Qiwen Wu. 2012. Community land trusts in New York City. Unpublished report. Available at: http://cltnetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/2012-CLTs-in-NYC.pdf

Arrunada, Benito and Amon Lehavi. 2010. Prime property institutions for a subprime era: Toward innovative models of homeownership. Berkeley Business Law Journal 8: 1-34.

Attard, Jean-Philippe.  2012. Dissociation de la propriete du sol et du logement: Transposition des practiques des community land trusts aux activites de l’etablissement public foncier D’ile de France.  Paris: Establissement Public Foncier.

Axel-Lute, Miriam. 2010. Homeownership today and tomorrow: Building Assets while preserving affordability.  Washington DC: Cornerstone Partnership.

———. 2011.  CLTs go commercial.  Shelterforce no. 166 (Summer): 32-35.

———. 2017.  New York City becomes a hotbed of community land trust innovation. Shelterforce Weekly, November 7.

Axel-Lute, Miriam, John Emmeus Davis, and Harold Simon. 2012. Cheaper together: How neighbors invest in community. YES! Magazine 62 (Summer): 30-33.

Axel-Lute, Miriam and Dana Hawkins-Simons. 2015. Community land trusts grown from the grassroots.  Land Lines (July): 21-25, 35-36.

Axel-Lute, Miriam and Dana Hawkins-Simons. 2015. Organizing and the community land trust model.  Shelterforce no. 180 (Fall): 40-44.

Bagdol, Alese. 2013.  Property taxes and community land trusts: A middle ground.  Texas Law Review 91 (no. 939).

Bailey, N. 2010. Building sustainable communities from the grassroots: How community land trust can create social sustainability. Pp. 49-64 in T. Manzi, K. Lucas, T. Lloyd-Jones, and J. Allen (Eds.). Social sustainability in urban areas: Communities, connectivity and the urban fabric. London: Earthscan.

Baiocchi, Gianpaolo et al. 2015. Under one roof: Global lessons in the struggle for democratic housing. A Right To The City Report written in collaboration with the Urban Democracy Lab, New York University.

Baker, A. 1992. This land is not for sale. Social Policy 22(4): 24–35.

Baldassari, Carol. 1988. A catalogue of methods for preserving affordable housing. Boston: Metropolitan Planning Council.

———. 1989. Limited equity homeownership: programs that create and protect affordable housing. Boston: Metropolitan Planning Council.

Baldwin, Ben. 2016. Networked community land trusts: An analysis of existing models and needs assessment for the Greater Boston Community Land Trust Network. Unpublished MA Thesis, Urban and Environmental Policy and Planning, Tufts University.

Bassett, Ellen M. 2005. Tinkering with tenure: The planning implications of the community land trust experiment in Voi, Kenya. Habitat International 29: 375–398.

———. 2007. The persistence of the commons: economic theory and community decision-making on land tenure in Voi, Kenya. African Studies Quarterly 9 (3): 1–29.

Bassett, Ellen M., and Harvey M. Jacobs. 1997. Community-based tenure reform in urban Africa: The community land trust experiment in Voi, Kenya. Land Use Policy 14(3): 215–229.

Benello, C. George, Robert Swann, and Shann Turnbull. 1997 (2nd edition).  Building sustainable communities: tools and concepts for self-reliant economic growth. New York: Bootstrap Press.

Bergeron, Emily. 2006. Community land trusts: Using historic preservation for affordable housing in the Florida Keys. In Contributions of historic preservation to the quality of life in Florida, ed. Timothy McLendon et al., chapter 7. Gainesville: Florida Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, Bureau of Historic Preservation.

Blackmore, John. 1978. Community trusts offer a hopeful way back to the land. Smithsonian 9 (June).

Blumgart, Jake. 2015. Housing’s forever solution. Next City (August 10). Available at: https://nextcity.org/features/view/affordable-housings-forever-solution

———. 2015. Community group turns to land trusts in Kensington. PhillyVoice.  (September 4). Available at: http://www.phillyvoice.com/community-group-turns-to-land-trusts-in-kensington/

———. 2015. Have we been wasting affordable housing money? Rooflines. Posted December 3.

Boucher, Norman. 1990. The death and life of Dudley: A lesson in urban economics. Boston Globe Magazine, April 18.

Bourassa, Steven C. 2006. The Community land trust as a highway environmental impact mitigation tool. Journal of Urban Affairs 28. Available as Working Paper WP05SB1, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/pub-detail.asp?id=1072.

———. 2006. Community land trusts and housing affordability. In Land policies and their outcomes, ed. Gregory K. Ingram and Yu-Hung Hong, 331–366. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Briechle, Kendra J. 2006. OPAL Commons and Bonnie Brae. In Conservation-based affordable housing, 79–81. Arlington, VA: Conservation Fund.

Broberg Brad.  2012.  Sustainable solutions: Shared equity and trusts provide a path to sustainable homeownership. On common ground (Winter): 46-51.

Bryden, John and Charles Geisler. Community-based land reform: lessons from Scotland. In The community land trust reader, ed. John Emmeus Davis, 475-498. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Bunce, Susannah. 2016. Pursuing urban commons: Politics and alliances in community land trust activism in East London, Antipode 48 (1): 134-150.

Bunce, Susannah and Farrah Chanda Aslam. 2016. Land trusts and the protection and conservation of land in Canada: Exploring non-governmental land trust practices and the role of urban community land trusts. Canadian Journal of Urban Research 25 (2): 23-34.

Burns, Heather. 2007. Retention or recapture: A comparison of two Seattle first-time homebuyer subsidy programs. Unpublished MPA thesis, Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington.

Cahen, Claire, Jakob Schneider, and Susan Saegert. 2017. The politics of community land trusts: comparative genealogies of resident participation. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Urban Affairs Association, Minneapolis, MN: April 21.

Campbell, Marcia Canton, and Danielle A. Salus. 2003. Community and conservation land trusts as unlikely partners? The case of Troy Gardens, Madison, Wisconsin. Land Use Policy 20:169–180.

Case, Nancy Humphrey. 2012. A counterweight to foreclosure crisis: Community land trusts? Christian Science Monitor. March 7, 2012.

Chen, Michelle. 2017. The solution to our housing crisis is to let communities own property. The Nation (August 29).

Ciardullo, Maxwell and Emily Thayden. 2013. Community land trusts have renters too. Shelterforce, vol. 35, no. 1 (Spring): 42-44, 50.

Cirillo, Marie. 2001. Stories from an Appalachian community. Twentieth Annual E.F. Schumacher Lecture, presented at Salisbury, CT, October 2000.  Reprinted in The Community Land Trust Reader, 2010, John Emmeus Davis (ed.), Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Citizens’ Housing and Planning Association. 1990. Looking to the future: A report on mechanisms for preserving the long-term affordability of privately owned, publicly assisted housing in Massachusetts. Boston: Author.

———. 2002. Alternative development and ownership models. In Taking the initiative: A guidebook on creating local affordable housing strategies, chapter 8. Boston: Author.

Cohen, Helen. 1994. Diminishing returns: A critical look at subsidy recapture. In The affordable city: Toward a third sector housing policy, ed. J. E. Davis, 107–121. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Cohen, Rebecca and Emily Salomon. 2010. Building in affordability. Shelterforce 32 (4): 24-27.

Collins, Chuck, and Kirby White. 1994. Boston in the 1980s: Toward a social housing policy. In The affordable city: Toward a third sector housing policy, ed. J. E. Davis, 201–225. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Community Finance Solutions. 2008. Placeshaping: A toolkit for urban community land trusts. Salford, England: Community Finance Solutions at the University of Salford.

———. 2008. Ready to take over the land: Sponsored briefing on community land trusts. New Start (November 14): 22–25.

———. 2008. Then we’ll do it ourselves: A Report on the rural community land trusts part of the Community Land Trust National Demonstration Programme. Salford, England: University of Salford and Wessex Reinvestment Trust.

———. 2009. Lessons from the first 150 homes: evaluation of the National Community Land Trust Demonstration Programme 2006–2008. Salford, England: University of Salford.

Community Finance Solutions & New Economic Foundation. 2005. Capturing value for rural communities: community land trusts and sustainable rural communities. Wetherby, England: Countryside Agency Publications.

Community Legal Resources. 2005. Community land trusts: a primer for local officials. Detroit, MI: Community Legal Resources, Community Land Trust Project. http://www.community-wealth.org/_pdfs/articles-publications/clts/paper-community.pdf.

Conaty, Pat, Johnston Birchall, Steve Bendle, and Rosemary Foggitt. 2003. Common ground—for mutual home ownership: community land trusts and shared-equity co-operatives to secure permanently affordable homes for key workers. London: New Economics Foundation and CDS Co-operatives.

Conaty, Pat and Michael Lewis.  2011.  Affordability locked in.  i4 e-journal (Canadian Centre for Community Renewal).  Available at: www.communityrenewal.ca/sites/all/files/resources/i42011Nov11_Affordability.pdf

Conaty, Pat and Martin Large (eds.).  2013.  Commons sense: co-operative place making and the capturing of land value for 21st Century Garden Cities.  Manchester: Co-operatives UK.

Corey, Jeff. 2009. Community land trust: A model for all markets? Shelterforce 31(3&4): 50-53.

Crabtree, Louise. 2008. Models of perpetually affordable homeownership: report and case studies from the United States of America. Sydney, Australia: Urban Research Centre, University of Western Sydney.

———. 2008. The role of tenure, work and cooperativism in sustainable urban livelihoods. ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 7(2):260–282.

———. 2010. Fertile ground for CLT development in Australia. In The community land trust reader, ed. John Emmeus Davis, 464-474. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Crabtree Louise, Peter Phibbs, Vivienne Milligan, and Hazel Blunden.  2012.  Principles and practices of an affordable housing community land trust model. Sydney: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.

Crabtree, Louise, Hazel Blunden, Vivienne Milligan, Peter Phibbs, and Carolyn Sappideen (with Nicole Moore).  2012.  Community land trusts and indigenous housing options.  Sydney: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.

Crabtree, Louise, Hazel Blunden, Vivienne Milligan, Peter Phibbs, Carolyn Sappideen, Derek Mortimer, Avril Shahib-Smith, and Lisa Chung.  2013.  The Australian community land trust manual.  Sydney: University of Western Sydney.  Available at: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/sydneydash/docDetail.action?docID=80115260

Crabtree, Louise, Nicole Moore, Peter Phibbs, Hazel Blunden, and Carolyn Sappideen. 2015. Community land trusts and indigenous communities: from strategies to outcomes. Sydney: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute, University of Western Sydney.

Cramer, Reid.  2009. In pursuit of a responsible homeownership policy. Shelterforce 31 (2): 22-25.

Crowe, Daniel. 2004. Community land trusts & mutual housing models: a research report for the mayor of London. London: GLA Housing and Homelessness Unit, Greater London Authority.

Curtin, Julie Farrell, and Lance Bocarsly. 2008. CLTs: A growing trend in affordable home ownership. Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Development Law 17(4):367–394.

Davidson, Elke. 2012. Growing partnerships between Atlanta’s land bank authority, community land trusts and community development corporations.  Unpublished research report commissioned by the Fulton County-City of Atlanta Land Bank Authority.

Davis, Diane E. and Mia Charlene White. 2013. Community land trusts as a means for urban poverty alleviation: Can collective property rights be the key to a socially sustainable and inclusive urban future? In Alicia Ziccardi (ed.), Cities, the Knowledge Economy, and Social Inequality, vol. I. Mexico: National Autonomous University of Mexico/PUEC. [Title in Spanish: “El fideicomiso de propiedad comunitaria come recurso para reducer la pobreza urbana: pueden los derechos a la propiedad colectiva ser la clave para alcanzarun future incluyente y socialment sustantable en la ciudad? In Ciudades del 2010: Entre la Sociedad del Conocimiento y la Desiqualdad Social.]

Davis, John Emmeus. 1983. CLTs and the politics of ownership. Community Economics 2 (Fall).

———. 1984. Reallocating equity: A land trust model of land reform. In Land reform, American style, ed. Charles C. Geisler and Frank J. Popper, 209–232. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Allanheld.

———. 1990. An interview with John Davis. Community Economics 21 (Fall).

———. 1991. Contested ground: collective action and the urban neighborhood. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

———. 1994. The affordable city: Toward a third sector housing policy. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

———. 2000. Homemaking: The pragmatic politics of third sector housing. In Property and values, ed. Charles Geisler and Gail Daneker, 233–258. Washington, DC: Island Press.

———. 2005. A Primer on Membership Development for Community Land Trusts.

CLT Resource Center, www.burlingtonassociates.com.

———. 2006. Between devolution and the deep blue sea: What’s a city or state to do? In A Right to Housing, ed. Rachael Bratt, Michael Stone, and Chester Hartman, 364-398. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

———. 2006. Shared equity homeownership: The changing landscape of resale-restricted, owner-occupied housing. Montclair, NJ: National Housing Institute.

———. 2006. Starting a Community Land Trust: Organizational and Operational Choices. CLT Resource Center, www.burlingtonassociates.com.

———. 2007. Toward a common agenda: Growing shared equity housing. Shelterforce 29(1):26–27.

———. 2008. Homes that last: The case for counter-cyclical stewardship. Shelterforce 30(4):18–25.

———. 2009. Community land trusts: The developer that doesn’t go away. Around the House 77 (June): 7–9.

———. 2009. Shared equity homeownership: Designed to last. Communities and Banking 20(4).

———. 2010. Origins and evolution of the community land trust in the United States. In The community land trust reader, ed. John Emmeus Davis, 3-47. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

———. 2010. The community land trust reader.  Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

———. 2010. More than money: What is shared in shared equity homeownership? ABA Journal of Affordable Housing & Community Development Law 19 (3&4): 259-277.

______. 2011.  Community builders interview: John Emmeus Davis, Cofounder of Burlington Associates in Community Development and Dean of the National CLT Academy.  Democracy Collaborative (April).  Available at: www.community-wealth.org/strategies/cw-interviews.html

______. 2012.  Shared-equity homeownership.  In Encyclopedia of Housing (Second Edition), ed. Andrew T. Carswell, 666-670.  Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.

______. 2013.  No time for timidity.  Cooperative Housing Bulletin. (February) Available at: http://www.coophousing.org/DisplayPage.aspx?id=1526

______. 2014. Postscript: A community land trust perspective on building the next generation of Garden Cities. Pp, 187-197 in Philip Ross and Yves Cabannes, 21st Century Garden Cities of To-Morrow: A manifesto.

______. 2014. Manuel d’antispeculation immobiliere.  Montreal: Les Editions Ecosociete.

______. 2015. Common ground: Community-led development on community-owned land. Unpublished essay available on Roots&Branches: www.cltroots.org

______. 2017. Affordable for good: Building inclusive communities through homes that last. Atlanta, GA: Habitat for Humanity International.

______. 2017. Common ground: Community-owned land as a platform for equitable and sustainable development. University of San Francisco Law Journal 51 (issue 1).

Davis, John Emmeus and Charles C. Geisler. 1983. The role of alternative land institutions in employment and local economic development. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Rural Sociological Society, Lexington, KY.

Davis, John Emmeus, Tim McKenzie, and Diana Carminati. 1993. Designing a home equity living plan for Madison, Wisconsin: a pre-feasibility study. Madison, WI: Madison Area Community Land Trust and Independent Living, Inc.

Davis, John Emmeus and Amy Demetrowitz. 2003. Permanently affordable homeownership: does the community land trust deliver on its promises? Burlington, VT: Burlington Community Land Trust.

Davis, John Emmeus and Rick Jacobus. 2008. The city-CLT partnership: municipal support for community land trusts. Policy Focus Report. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Davis, John Emmeus and Alice Stokes. 2009. Lands in trust, homes that last: a performance evaluation of the Champlain Housing Trust. Burlington, VT: Champlain Housing Trust.

Davis, John Emmeus and Greg Rosenberg. Roots&Branches: a gardener’s guide to the origins and evolution of the community land trust.  An online archive of historical documents and photographs launched in 2014 and updated biannually. Available at: www.cltroots.org

Dayson Karl, Steve Bendle, and Bob Paterson. 2007. Community land trusts: a practitioner’s guide. Salford, England: Community Finance Solutions.

DeFilippis, James. 2001. The myth of social capital in community development. Housing Policy Debate 12(4): 781–806.

———. 2002. Equity vs. equity: Community control of land and housing in the United States. Local Economy 17(2): 149–153.

———. 2004. Unmaking Goliath: community control in the face of global capital. New York: Routledge.

———. 2017. The commodity effects of de-commodification: Community land trusts and neighborhood property values. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Urban Affairs Association, Minneapolis, MN: April 21.

———. 2017. On the political meanings of the transformations of property and ownership in the United States. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Geographers, Boston.

DeFilippis, James, Brian Stromberg, and Olivia R. Williams. 2018. W(h)ither the community in community land trusts? Journal of Urban Affairs (in press).

DeFilippis, James, Fisher, R., and Shragge, E. 2006. Neither romance nor regulation: re-evaluating community. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 30 (3): 673–89.

De Pauw, Geert and Orlando Sereno Regis. 2011. Etude de faisabilité des community land trusts

en région bruxelloise.  Rapport présenté au Cabinet du secrétaire d’Etat au Logement par le consortium composé de Periferia, Maison de Quartier Bonnevie, CREDAL, Development of Planning Unit, Gut‐T et Lydian Lawyers.

Diacon, Richard Clarke, and Silvia Guimaraes. 2005. Redefining the commons: locking in value through community land trusts. Coalville, Leicestershire, UK: Building and Social Housing Foundation.

Dubb, Steve. 2016. Land banks & community land trusts: Interview of Rosalind Greenstein. Pp. 231-240 in Conversations on community wealth building. Washington, DC: The Democracy Collaborative (Interview conducted in 2007).

———. 2016. Land banks & community land trusts: Interview of John Emmeus Davis. Pp. 255-274 in Conversations on community wealth building. Washington, DC: The Democracy Collaborative (Interview conducted in 2011).

———. 2017. DC adopts community land trust approach to avert further gentrification. Nonprofit Quarterly (October 2).

Dwyer-Voss, Ron. 1997. Community land trusts: a flexible form of homeownership. Pacific Mountain Review 15(1): 1–8.

Ehlenz, Meagan. 2013.  Limited equity coops by community land trusts: case study and a feasibility assessment for the hybrid.  National Community Land Trust Network (USA). http://www.cltnetwork.org/doc_library/Resources/Research%20Collaborative/Research%20Listings/2013/limited%20equity%20coops%20by%20CLTs%202013%20%28Ehlenz%29.pdf

Ella, Nate and Greg Rosenberg. 2017. Land tenure for urban farming toward a scalable model. Pp. 24-48 in Steve Ventura and Martin Bailkey (eds.), Good Food, Strong Communities. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa Press.  

Engelsman, Udi, Mike Rowe, and Alan Southern. 2016. Community Land Trusts, affordable housing and community organising in low-income neighbourhoods. International Journal of Housing Policy (Published online: July 5).

Equity Trust. 2005. Farmland and farmers for the future: beyond conservation easements. Video. Turners Falls, VT: Equity Trust, Inc.

———. 2010.  Preserving farms for farmers. Turners Falls, VT: Equity Trust, Inc.

Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. 2006. CLTs keep housing affordable. Partners in Community and Economic Development 16 (3): 2-4.

Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. 2012. Community land trusts: an alternative approach to affordable homeownership and neighborhood revitalization. MarketWise Community 3 (1): 1-9.

Finkel, Ed. 2005. Affordable forever. Planning 71 (November): 24–27.

Fireside, Daniel. 2005. Burlington busts the affordable housing debate. Dollars & Sense 258 (March/April): 19–21, 28–29.

———. 2008. Community land trust keeps prices affordable—for now and forever. Yes Magazine, no. 47 (Fall): 28–32.

Flint, Anthony. 2010. Two strategies to confront the crisis: Value capture in inclusionary zoning and converting foreclosed properties to community land trusts.” Pp. 56-58 in Christopher Niedt and Mark Silver (eds.), Forging a New Housing Policy: Opportunity in the Wake of Crisis.  National Center for Suburban Studies, Hofstra University.

Foldy, Erica, and Jonathan Walters. 2004. The power of balance: lessons from Burlington Community Land Trust. New York: NY Research Center for Leadership in Action, Leadership for a Changing World, Wagner School, New York University.

Garcia-Rios, Patricia.  2016. Cano Martin Pena: Land ownership and politics collide in Puerto Rico. Cambridge MA: Case Program, Harvard Kennedy School.

Gauger, William R. 2006. Is the community land trust the best model for achieving your organization’s goals? Community land trust performance in different housing markets.  Report prepared for Community Legal Services, Detroit.

Geisler, Charles C. 1980. In land we trust. Cornell Journal of Social Relations 15(1): 98–115.

Gent, Cathleen, William Sawyer, John Emmeus Davis, and Alison Weber. 2005. Evaluating the benefits of living in the Burlington Community Land Trust’s rental housing and cooperative housing. Burlington: Center for Rural Studies, University of Vermont.

Gottschalk, Shimon, and Robert S. Swann. 1970. Planning a rural new town in southwest Georgia. Arete (Journal of the Graduate School of Social Work, University of South Carolina) 2(1).

Graham, David.  2012. Saving the village pub. Shelterforce 34 (Fall), #171, 2012: 24-25, 50.

Gray, Jim. 2008. Shared equity gains acceptance in affordable multifamily development.  Commercial Mortgage Insight (May).

Gray, Karen A. 2008. Community land trusts in the United States. Journal of Community Practice 16 (1): 65–78.

Gray, Karen A. and Galande, M. 2011. Keeping “community” in a community land trust, Social Work Research 35 (4): 241-248.

Gray, Karen A. and Julie E. Miller-Cribbs. 2012. Durham community land trustees. Journal of Community Practice 20 (4): 402-413.

Greater Frogtown Community Development Corporation, Rondo Community Land Trust, Donjek, Inc. 2012. Commercial land trust feasibility: Final summary. St. Paul: McKnight Foundation. Available at: http://www.cltnetwork.org/doc_library/Resources/Research%20Collaborative/Research%20Listings/2012/2012%20Commercial_Land_Trust%20%28Donjek%29.pdf

Greenstein, Rosalind. 2007. Henry George and community land trusts. The Housing Journal (Delaware Housing Coalition, Winter/Spring): 6.

______.  2007.  Community builders interview: Rosalind Greenstein, Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.  Democracy Collaborative (May).  Available at: www.community-wealth.org/strategies/cw-interviews.html

Greenstein, Rosalind, and Yesim Sungu-Eryilmaz. 2005. Community land trusts: leasing land for affordable housing. Land Lines: Newsletter of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy 17(2):8–10.

———. 2007. Community land trusts: A solution for permanently affordable housing. Land Lines: Newsletter of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy 19(1):8–13.

Gura, Jeanne Goldie. 2001. Preserving affordable homeownership opportunities in rapidly escalating real estate markets. ABA Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Development Law 78 (Fall): 78.

Hackett, Kristen. 2017. CLTs as prefiguration: postulating the political potential. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Urban Affairs Association, Minneapolis, MN: April 21.

Hackett, K., Saegert, S., Dozier, D., Marinova, M. 2017. Housing possible selves: A CLT’s alternative political economics ground ontological security and emergent possibilities. Housing Studies. (Under editorial review).

Harrington, Catherine and Steve Watson. 2011. Trust and Association: partnerships between community land trusts and housing associations.  London, England: National Housing Federation.

Harmon, Tasha R. 1992. Affordable housing: The Vermont model. Amherst: Center for Rural Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts.

———. 1998. Who pays the price for regional planning? How to link growth management and affordable housing. Planners Network 128 (March/April).

———. 2003. Integrating social equity and growth management: Linking community land trusts and smart growth. Springfield, MA: Institute for Community Economics.

Harper, David.  2007.  Community land trusts: saving the land to which we belong. Exchange (Newsletter of the National Land Trust Alliance, Summer): 9–13.

———. 2007. Community land trusts: protecting the land commons. Green Revolution 64 (3).

———.  2012.  Community land trusts: Affordable access to land and housing.  The Global Urban Economic Dialogue Series.  Nairobi:  United Nations Human Settlements Programme.

Hatcher, Desiree. 2016. Community land trust model: opportunities and challenges of preserving affordable housing. ProfitWise News & Views (Issue 2).

Haughey, Rick and Ryan Sherriff. 2010. Challenges and policy options for creating and preserving affordable housing near transit and other location-efficient areas. Washington, DC: Center for Housing Policy.

Heartt, Sarah. 1980. Improving our use of the land: thoughts of the Institute for Community Economics. Living Alternatives Magazine (February): 43–46.

Herman, Kim. 2006. Community land trusts come of age. Washington State Housing Finance Commission Executive Director’s Newsletter (April). http://www.wshfc.org/newsletter/2006.04.index.htm

Hern, Matt. 2016. What a city is for: Remaking the politics of displacement. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Hernández Torrales, María E. 2016. The Fideicomiso de la Tierra Caño Martín Peña: An instrument to regularize the relationship with the land and to overcome Poverty. Paper prepared for presentation at the 2016 World Bank Conference on Land and Poverty. The World Bank, Washington DC, March 14-18.

Hetherington, Peter. 2009. Common ground. The Guardian (April 8).

Hickey, Robert.  2013.  The role of community land trusts in fostering equitable, transit-oriented development: Case studies from Atlanta, Denver, and the Twin Cities.  Working Paper WP13RH1.  Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.  Available at: http://www.lincolninst.edu/pubs/2243_The-Role-of-Community-Land-Trusts-in-Fostering-Equitable–Transit-Oriented-Development

Hickey, Robert, Lisa Sturtevant, and Emily Thaden.  2014.  Achieving lasting affordability through inclusionary zoning. Working Paper WP14RH1. Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Hill, Stephen. 2015. Property, justice, and reason: Reconnecting the citizen and state through community land trusts and land reform in nine narratives, A report on study visits to North American cities in April and May 2014. Available at: http://www.wcmt.org.uk/sites/default/files/report-documents/Hill%20S%20Report%202014%20Final.pdf

———. 2017. Taking self-build out of its ‘small and special box’: citizens as agents for the political and the social of self-build. In M. Benson and I. Hamiduddin (eds.), Self-Build Homes: Social Discourse, Experiences and Directions. London: UCL Press.

Horwitz, Staci S.  2011.  It’s all about choice.  Shelterforce no. 166 (Summer): 40-42, 47.

Hovde, Sarah and John Krinsky.  1997.  Watchful stewards: Mutual housing associations and community land trusts preserve affordable housing.  Shelterforce (March/April).

Huron, Amanda Maude. 2012. The work of the urban commons: limited-equity cooperatives in Washington, D.C.  Unpublished dissertation. Earth and Environmental Sciences Program, City University of New York Graduate Center.

Iglesias, Tim. 2007. Our pluralist housing ethics and the struggle for affordability. Wake Forest Law Review 42(Summer): 511.

Immergluck, Dan.  2010.  What’s ahead in residential finance and housing markets? Partners in Community and Economic Development 20 (1): 3-7.

Institute for Community Economics. 1982. The community land trust handbook. Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.

———. 1993. Profiles of community land trusts. Springfield, MA: Author.

———. 2002. Community land trust legal manual. Springfield, MA: Author.

International Independence Institute. 1972. The community land trust: a guide to a new model for land tenure in America. Cambridge, MA: Center for Community Economic Development.

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Thaden Emily and Jeffrey S. Lowe. 2014. Resident and community engagement in community land trusts,” Working Paper WP14ET1, Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Thompson, M. 2015. Between boundaries: From Commoning and guerrilla gardening to community land trust development in Liverpool. Antipode. Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/anti.12154/full

Thurman, Jinny A. 2017. To strike a fair balance: The Peacemakers and the community land trust movement in West Virginia, 1970-1982. West Virginia History 11 (no. 1, Spring): 45-72.

Torpy, Brenda. 2010.  The community land trust solution: the case of the Champlain Housing Trust. Pp. 64-66 in Christopher Niedt and Mark Silver (eds.), Forging a New Housing Policy: Opportunity in the Wake of Crisis.  National Center for Suburban Studies, Hofstra University.

Topelson, Sara. 2009. Exitoso esquema de crédito para la vivienda. El Economista (October).

Towey, Matthew. 2009. The land trust without land: the unusual structure of the Chicago community land trust. ABA Journal of Affordable Housing and Community Development Law 18 (Spring): 335.

Treuhaft, Sarah, Kalima Rose, and Jennifer Tran. 2012. Fostering equitable foreclosure recovery.  Oakland, CA: PolicyLink.

Tulloss, Janice K. 1998. Transforming urban regimes—A grassroots approach to comprehensive community development: the Dudley Street Neighborhood Initiative. http://comm-org.wisc.edu/papers98/tulloss.htm#landtrust. A previous version of this unpublished paper was delivered at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco, August 31, 1996.

Turnbull, Shann. 2007. Affordable housing policy: not identifiable with orthodox economic analysis. Working Paper. Sydney, Australia: International Institute for Self-Governance.

Urban Land Institute Colorado. 2017. Six principles for equitable revitalization. A report from the ULI Colorado forum, “The Search for Equity in Neighborhood Revitalization,” held in Denver on March 3, 2017.

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 1992. Community land trusts and the HOME Program. Notice from Community Planning and Development to CPD Regional and Field Office Directors (HUD 21B).

———. 1999. Homeownership options under the HOME Program: a model for publicly held properties and land trusts. Washington, DC: Office of Affordable Housing Programs, Community Planning and Development.

———. 2012. Shared equity models offer sustainable homeownership.  Evidence Matters. Fall: 19-26. Available at: http://www.huduser.org/portal/periodicals/em/fall12/highlight3.html

Vardy, David P. 2012. A review of “The community land trust reader.”  Journal of the American Planning Association 78 (2): 216-217.

Watson, Greg. 1997. The wisdom that builds community. Seventeenth Annual E.F. Schumacher Lecture, Williams College, Williamstown, MA.

Webster, Harriet. 2000. From hopeless to home run: how a community land trust transformed a neighborhood. Planning (December).

Weiss, Kelly. 2005. The community land trust report: creating permanent affordable homeownership opportunities in Austin, Texas. Prepared for the Austin City Council by the Department of Neighborhood Housing and Community Development, Austin Housing Finance Corporation. www.community-wealth.org/_pdfs/articles-publications/clts/report-weiss.pdf.

West, David.  2011.  Valuation of community land trust homes in New York State.  Journal of Property Tax Assessment & Administration 8 (4): 15-24.

White, Kirby, Jill Lemke, and Michael Lehman. 1999. Community land trusts and rural housing. In Housing in rural America, ed. Joseph N. Belden and Robert J. Wiener, 185–194. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

White, Kirby, and Charles Matthei. 1987. Community land trusts. In Beyond the market and the state: New directions in community development, ed. Severyn T. Bruyn and James Meehan, 41–64. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.

Williams, Olivia, Azadeh Hadizadeh Esfahani, Deborah Martin, Rick Kruger, Joseph Pierce, and James DeFilippis. 2017. Transforming discourses and subjectivities around homeownership in community land trusts in the Twin Cities. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Urban Affairs Association, Minneapolis, MN: April 21.

Williamson, Thad, David Imbroscio, and Gar Alperovitz. 2002. Community land trusts and community agriculture. In Making a place for community, 249–262. New York: Routledge.

Witt, Susan. 1985. Regional responsibility for farmland. Newsletter of the E.F. Schumacher Society (Spring).

Witt, Susan, and Jay Rossier. 2000. A new lease on farmland:
assuring a future for farming in the Northeast, rev. ed. Great Barrington, MA: E.F. Schumacher Society.

Witt, Susan, and Robert Swann. 2005. Land: the challenge and the opportunity. Great Barrington, MA: E.F. Schumacher Society.

Witte, Pete. 2012.  Community land trusts in Atlanta, Georgia: a central server model.  HUD User, EDGE online magazine (November 27).  Available at: http://www.huduser.org/portal/pdredge/pdr_edge_inpractice_112312.html

Yahya, S.S. 2002. Community land trusts and other tenure innovations in Kenya. In G. Payne (ed.), Land, Rights and Innovation: Improving Tenure Security for the Urban Poor. London: ITDG Publishing.

Yellen, James.  2017. Community land trusts as neighborhood stabilization: A case study of Oakland and beyond. Unpublished MCP thesis, Department of City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley.

Young Foundation. 2010. A Review of Urban Community Land Trusts in England: lessons and Practical Advice.  Available at: www.youngfoundation.org/a-review-urban-community-land-trusts-england-lessons-and-practical-advice-september-2010

Youngblood, Mtamanika and Harold M. Barnette.  2010.  Atlanta’s Pittsburgh neighborhood: building the sustainable urban community.  Shelterforce 32 (4): 20-23.

Yuen, Jeffrey. 2012. Hybrid vigor: An analysis of land tenure arrangements in addressing land security for urban community gardens. Unpublished thesis, Master of Science in Urban Planning, Columbia University.

Yuen, Jeffrey. 2014. City farms on CLTs: how community land trusts are supporting urban agriculture. Land Lines 26 (2): 2-9.

Yuen, Jeffrey and Greg Rosenberg.  2012. Hanging onto the land.  Shelterforce 34 (Fall), #171, 30-33.

Zonta, Michela. 2016. Community land trusts: A promising tool for expanding and protecting affordable housing. Washington, DC: Center for Community Progress.

Documentary Films

Chasnoff, Deborah, and Helen Cohen. 1998. Homes & hands: community land trusts in action. Video produced for the Institute for Community Economics by Women’s Educational Media. Distributed by New Day Films, Hohokus, NJ.

Cohen, Helen and Mark Lipman. 2013. Streets of dreams: Development without displacement in communities of color. Video produced by Open Studio Productions.

Cohen, Helen and Mark Lipman. 2016. Arc of justice: the rise, fall, and rebirth of a beloved community. Video produced by Open Studio Productions. [Viewer’s Guide, Backstory, Chronology, biographical sketches of main characters, and other resource materials available at www.arcofjusticefilm.com]

Lipman, Mark and Leah Mahan. 1996. Holding ground: The rebirth of Dudley Street. Distributed by New Day Films.

Lipman, Mark and Leah Mahan. 2013. Gaining ground: Building community on Dudley Street. Distributed by New Day Films.

Supplementary readings

Avilia, C.  1983.  Ownership: early Christian teaching.  Maryknoll NY: Orbis Books.

Barnes, Peter (ed.). 1975.  The people’s land.  Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press.

Barnes, Peter. 2004. Sharing the wealth of the commons. Dollars & Sense, no. 256.

———. 2006. Trusteeship of creation. In Capitalism 3.0: A guide to reclaiming the commons, chapter 6. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.

Bechtel, Judith A. and Robert M. Coughlin. 1991. Building the beloved community: Maurice McCrackin’s life for peace and civil rights.  Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.

Barker, Charles Albro. 1974.  Henry George. Greenwood Press.

Borsodi, Ralph. 1968. The possessional problem. In Seventeen problems of man and society. Anand, India: Charotar Book Stall. Repr. in Green Revolution, 1978; ed. and rev. by Gordon Lameyer and Lydia Ratliff.  Reprinted in The Community Land Trust Reader, 2010, John Emmeus Davis (ed.), Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

———. 1974. Plowboy interview: Dr. Ralph Borsodi. Mother Earth News, no. 26 (March/April).  Reprinted in The Community Land Trust Reader, 2010, John Emmeus Davis (ed.), Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy.

Branch, Taylor. 1988. Almost Christmas in Albany.  Chapter Fourteen, Parting the waters: America in the King years, 1954-63. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Bunting Eve.  2001.  Charisma stability and change: An analysis of Bhoodan-Gramdan Movement in India.  Thompson Press.

Cabannes, Yves and Philip Ross.  2014.  21st Century garden cities of to-morrow: A manifesto. Letchworth Garden City: New Garden City Movement.

Catholic Bishops of the Heartland. 1980.  Strangers and guests: Toward community in the heartland. Sioux Falls SD: Heartland Project.

Cline, David P. 2016. Into the heart of the beast: Ministry in the fields and towns of southwest Georgia, 1965-1968. Pp. 90-119 (Chapter Four) in From reconciliation to revolution: The Student Interracial Ministry, Liberal Christianity, and the Civil Rights Movement. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Deming, Barbara. 1966. Prison notes.  Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Garrow, David J. 1986. Albany and lessons for the future, 1961-1962.  Chapter Four, Bearing the cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.  New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. 1960. Trusteeship. Ahemadabad, India: Navajivan Trust.

George, Henry.1998. Progress and poverty (Abridged edition).  New York: Robert Schalkenbach Foundation.

Golden, Jeffrey.  1971. Watermelon summer: A journal.  New York: J.B. Lippincott Company.

Hall, Peter. 2002. Cities of tomorrow, 3rd ed. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell.

Hall, Peter and C. Ward. 1998. Sociable cities: the legacy of Ebenezer Howard. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Hardy, Dennis. 2000. Utopian England: Community experiments 1900-1945.  London/New York: Routledge.

Hicks, George L. 2001. Experimental Americans: Celo and utopian community in the twentieth century. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Howard, Ebenezer. 1965. Garden cities of to-morrow. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

K’Meyer, Tracy Elaine. 1997. Interracialism and Christian community in the postwar south: The Story of Koinonia Farm.  Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press.

Knight, Caroline E., Sarah Poteete, Amy Sparrow, and Jessica C. Wrye. 2002. “From the Ground Up: The Community-Building of Marie Cirillo.” Appalachian Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1 (FALL ): 30-56.

Lee, Dallas. 1971. The cotton patch evidence: The story of Clarence Jordan and the Koinonia Farm experiment (1942-1970).  Americus, GA: Koinonia Partners.

Loomis, Mildred J. 1978. Ralph Borsodi’s principles for homesteaders. Land & Liberty (November–December).

Loomis, Mildred J. 1980. Decentralism, where it came from and where is it going? Montreal: Black Rose Books.

Loomis, Mildred J. Undated.  Ralph Borsodi, reshaping modern culture: The story of the School of Living and its founder.  Julian, PA: School of Living.

Mallach, Alan. 2011. Building sustainable homeownership: Rethinking public policy toward lower-income homeownership. Philadelphia PA: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.

———. 2005. Building a better urban future: new directions for housing policies in weak market cities. Montclair, NJ: National Housing Institute, Community Development Partners’ Network, The Enterprise Foundation, and Local Initiatives Support Corporation.

McKnight, Albert J. 2011. Whistling in the wind: The autobiography of Fr. Albert J. McKnight. Opelousas, LA: Southern Development Foundation, Inc.

Mills, Stephanie. 2010.  On Gandhi’s path: Bob Swann’s work for peace and community economics. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers.

Morgan, Arthur E. 1942. The small community. Yellow Springs OH: Community Services.

O’Donnell, Edward. 2015. Henry George and the crisis of inequality: Progress and Poverty in the Gilded Age. New York: Columbia University Press.

Ross, Philip and Yves Cabannes. 2013. 21st Century garden cities of to-morrow: How to become a garden city (fourth edition). Published at www.Lulu.com.

Sharp, Bill. 2014. Ralph Borsodi: Prophet of decentralization. http://newschoolofliving.blogspot.com/

Sherrod, Shirley. 2012. The courage to hope: how I stood up to the politics of fear. New York: ATRIA Books.

Talbert, Roy. 1987. FDR’s utopian: Arthur Morgan of the TVA. Oxford: University of Mississippi Press.

Tawney, R.H. 1920. “Property and Creative Work,” in The acquisitive society. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Vitek William and Wes Jackson (eds.). 1996. Rooted in the land: essays on community and place. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.

Von Hassell, M. 1996. Homesteading in New York City, 1978–1993: the divided heart of Loisaida. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.

Zinn, Howard. 1967. Albany, Georgia: Ghost in the cage. Part Three (pp. 147-213) in The southern mystique. Chicago IL: Haymarket Books.


Arc of Justice website: www.arcofjusticefilm.com

Center for Community Land Trust Innovation/Global Land Alliance: www.globallandalliance.org

Equity Trust: http://equitytrust.org/

Grounded Solutions Network (formerly National CLT Network, USA): www.groundedsolutions.org

National CLT Network (UK): http://www.communitylandtrusts.org.uk/

Roots & Branches: www.cltroots.org

Schumacher Center for a New Economics: http://www.centerforneweconomics.org/